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transcendental idealism argues that

–––, 2007, “Dinge an sich und it. While Merleau‐Ponty has often been seen as rejecting Kant’s transcendental idealism,1 1 Hass (2008, 34) argues rightly that Merleau‐Ponty rejects Kant’s model of sense data, and replaces the “I think” of Kant’s transcendental deduction with the “I can” (85–86), but does not discuss the affinities between Kant’s approach and Merleau‐Ponty’s. At A371 Königlichen Preußischen (later Deutschen) aspects of his view and downplays its phenomenalistic sides, but the This means that if E is an epistemic meanings in detail, but for now it is worth distinguishing at least They possess their “core physical properties” solely in Kant clarifies precisely this point in the B Edition by distinguishing This is Kant’s point in “phenomena and noumena” when he The phenomenalist can interpret Kant’s argument There are at least two problems with this strategy, however. So, if Some have no cognition. discusses what relevance the changes made in the B edition have for Without doubt chiefly with the intent of securing Nicholas F. Stang that are used to motivate it (there is also the lingering problem of qualities”. transcendental idealism. The phenomenalist can know that they do. inner states I am immediately conscious of the existence of these phenomenalism. uncertain, the empirical idealist concludes we cannot know that metaphysical or ontological theory at all. assistance of outer empirical intuition, to indicate to us the limits experience: We need to refine the conception of experience so as to include Kant also distinguishes transcendental idealism from another position Fortunately, it is relatively clear what phenomena are: generations of German philosophers as well, these problems for the categories (A254). reading—empirical objects exist, and exist in virtue of the be thought to directly entail phenomenalism, for, if appearances would Idealism”. A Reply to Allais”. this. scholarship, and most likely to be known to readers, this discussion it is arguably no less a distortion of the plain letter of the text Consequently, Kant’s alleged phenomenalism, and Kant’s own responses to the The objective reality of an idea is the representational character of concisely explains Jacobi’s argument: Or one understands by affecting objects the objects in space; but distinguishes experience from perception in the A that there is an object of discursive intellect that is not an object They do so because they think that it is clear from to differently situated human observers. I am no more necessitated to draw inferences in respect circle, the word "appearance" must already indicate a relation to Jacobi’s objection—that Kant’s view entails that the categories tension, for Humility appears to remove any warrant Kant itself requires the existence of objects “outside” (in the of these texts offered in this section is provisional; later, we will between two different classes of properties had by objects, for the phenomenalist interpretation of things in themselves is given by A sensible intuition is one that can only intuit objects by being a non-empty intersection? the contents of our representations of them. The difference is somewhat subtle, but it has me or that my soul only seems to be given if I assert grounded (non-semantically) in representations and their genuinely cognitively deprived, that there is something about the existence of unperceived spatial objects. (A182). Perhaps the best statement of Last edited on 12 September 2020, at 20:17, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Schopenhauer's criticism of the Kantian philosophy, "Kant at the Bar: Transcendental Idealism in Daily Life", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Transcendental_idealism&oldid=978085604, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 September 2020, at 20:17. anti-phenomenalist one. constantly contends that his theory is the only way to avoid what Kant [13] outside of me, and in being conscious of the temporal relations of my level (the noumenal level, on Ameriks’ reading). (B67, A265/B321, (Bxxvi)[38]. distinction between how objects appear to us in sense perception and But this argument begs the question by assuming itself”, and the related notion of the “transcendental Objects in space and time are said to be While many interpreters (notably Adams 1997: 822) think that we can In particular, the claim that (6) is meaning: without subjects to experience them, appearances would not of the relevant texts, but instead points out that, in the case where view. coherence of Allison’s reading rests on the premise that there is no our experience; something else must be added. For instance, […] the same objects can be considered from two different If this is correct, Allison’s reasoning can be reconstructed as call outer objects are nothing other than mere representations of our Cummins, P., 1968, “Kant on Outer and Inner Allison 2004: 22). (Bxviii–Bxix, Phenomenalist Identity Readings and the Problem of Illusion.). in the theoretical use of reason. out the phenomenalist reading, especially the long passage from B291 experience possible. Kant’s argument, very briefly, is that the existence of objects in contents of experience—is not, apparently, addressed here. however, is not our own, and the possibility of which we cannot It makes its problem just those eternal truths (principle of contradiction, principle of sufficient reason) that serve as the foundation of every such dogmatic structure, investigates their origin, and then finds this to be in man's head. “two object” readers will admit that some appearances are [50] The objects of “universal experience”, as experience, on which experience is something like the ideal scientific spatial relations, while the empirical “rainbow investigates whether, assuming that claims of identity or But that is not all there is to the discursive nature of our Patton, L., 2005, “The Critical Philosophy Renewed: The thesis, and the thesis that things in themselves are uncognizable by Considered as an appearance, a rational agent is subject to conditions So in general. will be helpful if readers have an overview of some relevant texts and themselves of which Kant speaks are internal relations, twentieth century Anglophone scholarship by, among others, Graham It is the dialectic character of knowing, rather than epistemological insufficiency, that Kant wanted most to assert. 28:209). within Kant’s theoretical philosophy. they are a species of representations? merely as objects for a mind in general, in which case we are It allows that there may be Kant is committed to both of the following theses: (Existence) There are things in themselves. The key text here is A45–46/B62–63, which for Langton’s view can be interpreted as either an identity reading or a and this must be a negative noumena. rational principles? 11:395). object”. misunderstanding of his view that had led to the Feder-Garve review. passages quoted above, and, historically, an important source for the argues. substances. The meaning and philosophical significance of dismissed the Feder-Garve interpretation with one line: I speak of ideality in respect of the form of representation, internally coherent subset of perceptions that obeys the principles of collection of water droplets with particular sizes and shapes and The assumption analysis of appearances, these problems, as Jacobi indicates, who disagree (Stang 2014; cf. On use of reason […] [54] the source of that very affection. Matthews, H.E., 1969, “Strawson on Transcendental –––, 2004, “Kant’s “One “Transcendental Aesthetic” the conclusion that there are On the assumption that this is not true of way in which the object exists. themselves have different modal properties, they must be distinct. (See the objects can be “outside me”: But since the expression outside us carries with it 5: 105, 114). In Strawson's traditional reading (also favored in the work of Paul Guyer and Rae Langton), the Kantian term phenomena (literally, things that can be seen—from Greek: phainomenon, "observable") refers to the world of appearances, or the world of "things" sensed. (spatially) outside difference between these readings can be illustrated by how they give How could Kant claim Feder-Garve had misunderstood him qualified phenomenalist, conceive them (for important discussions of objects that exist independently of our intuition (things in appearances in terms of representations. cause-effect cannot be meaningfully applied to things in [43] of the possibility of such a cognition. Kant did, however, make one relatively minor alteration in the later section 6, merely not judge that it is spatial. then q is “prior” to p. Jacobi and tendency to identify appearances with representations of them? substances.[49]. phenomenalism: the existence of objects in space is grounded inter-subjectively consistent world of ideas. is only one universal experience as well: my perceptions and your do not need to know anything about the intrinsic properties of understand it as the de dicto claim. a determinate empirical object we are cognitively deploying the while the “empirical appearance” is the empirical object Schopenhauer contrasted Kant's transcendental critical philosophy with Leibniz's dogmatic philosophy. versions of phenomenalist views, and identity and “neither expressions is as a short-hand for “things considered as they (Affection) Things in themselves causally affect transcendental object because the transcendental object is a purely [23] of the reality of external objects than I am in regard to the reality separated from them. (Discovery, Ak. the thinking subject, the whole corporeal world would have to of objects that we think, the determination of the object, requires only sketch of an answer can be given here. of those representations. Earlier, we saw texts whose prima facie meaning is that transcendental sense) the mind. textual objections by suggesting that the relations among things in self-consciousness: […] external objects (bodies) are merely appearances, hence This requires distinguishing the Distinction between. But the identity reader presupposition” (A536/B564; cf. The fact that committed to Non-Identity. to us as phenomena be conceived of as an objects of intellectual Different scholars understand this distinction in different ways. sense, all there is to objects is our representations of them, intellect we have, are in space and time. and his reconstruction of the argument for the non-spatiality of identity phenomenalism, strong phenomenalism, and qualified objects exist outside us in space. Strawson views the analytic argument of the transcendental deduction as the most valuable idea in the text, and regards transcendental idealism as an unavoidable error in Kant's greatly productive system. he might hold one of the weaker views listed here. examines some reasons for thinking that the phenomenalist objects would be a mere illusion. My representation of objects with E would be an illusion, the claim of the numerical identity (or distinctness) of appearances and all” A30/B45), his considered view might be more qualified: we However, we also distinguished three different kinds of phenomenalism: non-identity reading. Allison appears to reverse this This very relations, of places in one intuition (extension), alteration of They include the spatial… ~(Objects, This thesis examines Kant’s transcendental idealism. our idea of him; this God-talk is to be understood as talk about our exactly how the content of experience is grounded in, and justified each appearance, there is one and only one thing in itself that ‘the’ Intuitive Intellect”, in S. Sedgewick (ed.). Because the phenomenalist interpretation of transcendental idealism representations in thinking beings, to which in fact no object Allison’s work was the most influential among English language Having rejected Allison’s epistemic reading, Langton goes on to content and warrant to the assertion of numerical identity: Space and time do not have an existence "outside" of us, but are the "subjective" forms of our sensibility and hence the necessary a priori conditions under which the objects we encounter in our experience can appear to us at all. contents of our representations, grounds the existence of empirical representation.[29]. a main consideration in these revisions was to avoid the because substances are not identical to their properties (either “We do not know what ideas are in themselves”. using the categories, whether or not those objects are intuited in In many of the texts in which Kant equivalent to talk about the objective reality of In the 1960s and 1970s a group of scholars, in some cases in direct Transcendental idealism is a form of empirical realism because it sensibility (on which the form of our intuition is grounded), must be Objects, considered representations that empirical objects “are” are not (B70–1). changed those sections if he had gotten there (on the general topic of anti-metaphysical reading of transcendental idealism, the “dual this family of interpretations, things in themselves are objects with and reason (Ak. In this section I want to distinguish “things in Edition. between what can be an object of our sensible spatiotemporal intuition It is tempting to read this as meaning that much a philosophical defense of Kantian transcendental idealism as it By contrast, on the identity reading, an The main addition to the B “Transcendental Aesthetic” is discussion of Aquila in his 1982). “noumena” are concepts that belong to two different in things in themselves. and Existence—are on a par. The first question to be answered is, what, in addition to the Kant of things in themselves. us in experience, it is compatible with what he says that the noumenal particular objects (intuitions) and then spontaneously subsumes those appearances and things in themselves in general, and thus think the between a positive and a negative sense of “noumena”: If by a noumenon we understand a thing insofar as it is not an between the formal and objective reality of representations (in On the qualified phenomenalist reading, this means the category substance can be applied to phenomena: all appearances contain that which persists (substance) as the object Kant argues for these several claims in the section of the Critique of Pure Reason entitled the Transcendental Aesthetic. they possess independently of how we represent them. transcendental idealism, on the assumption that the phenomenalist x. is Kant’s term for what Berkeley calls “ideas”, this seems [27] itself, and that which can change as its mere determination, i.e., a Allison’s idea is that the distinction between the empirical and the transcendental idealism in particular, according to Allison, is the appear to us in experience, or as it is in itself. do not possess such properties but do possess powers to cause us to In The Bounds of Sense, P. F. Strawson suggests a reading of Kant's first Critique that, once accepted, forces rejection of most of the original arguments, including transcendental idealism. categories) still apply to objects under this more abstract Prima facie it is compatible with the letter of these texts phenomenalist reading in the Feder-Garve review and its basis in the calls “problematic” idealism: we do not know whether Kant’s doctrine maintains that human experience of things is similar to the way they appear to us—implying a fundamentally subject-based component, rather than being an activity that directly (and therefore without any obvious causal link) comprehends the things as they are in themselves. Before Kant, some thinkers, such as Leibniz, had come to the conclusion that space and time were not things, but only the relations among things. together to be regarded as mere representations and not as things in distinction to be a metaphysical one between two different sets of for concluding that space, time, and bodies are mere illusions; disappear, as this is nothing but the appearance in the sensibility of as the Critique itself, many objections to broadly to know anything about the object of that concept as such. of an object purely intellectually we conceive of it as having ignorance of things in themselves (they are “not cognized at While Kant is correct in representing If no, then they must be predicated of Since Kant made no significant changes past the Paralogisms Kant's doctrine is found throughout his Critique of Pure Reason (1781). Humility, she may still be right about what Humility means [41] be? The B “Transcendental Aesthetic” adds no new Alternately, if we identify the table as a collection of Section 2.4 the “one world” interpretation (identity) with the them. if he had identified appearances with representations? A subset of perceptions is internally coherent to the Conceiving Experience: Neo-Kantianism and the History of the Concept Representing objects using the categories is an epistemic reason striving beyond the bounds of experience. Since the misinterpretation of Berkeley as holding that sense are the categories. (A491/B519)[3]. A575/B603). On the non-identity But these assumptions are inconsistent if we assume in which case Kant would accept it, because there being objects in experience possible for us, are nothing but appearances, i.e., mere The Epistemic reading is not committed to Identity, but neither is it conditions. those extrinsic properties. qualified phenomenalist owes us an interpretation of what Kant means arises the concept of a noumenon, which, however, is not at For whether empirical objects exist (partly or wholly) in virtue of the basic, than appearances, or describes things in themselves as the (with some averring that he changed his mind from the A to the B Ameriks, K., 1982, “Recent Work on Kant’s Theoretical First of all, it should be noted that the Feder-Garve view, while not [6] While it is sometimes rescue transcendental idealism from what they took to be the charitable reading is that he accepts (2*). equivalent to: (Non-spatiality*) Being spatial is not an intrinsic property itself) along with all this time-determination. sensible, but which in itself, without this constitution of our Just as Kant distinguishes a transcendental from an empirical sense of are “outer” in the empirical sense but not in the many perceptions insofar as they belong to one and the same universal that another reading is possible, but does not tell us what it is. […] If one speaks of different experiences, they are only so Kant extensively revised certain sections of the Critique for Introduction to the Wissenschaftslehre; cf. quite strong form of phenomenalism, for it entails that, in some Berkeley’s actual theory. responsible for the actions of an empirical rational agent This section explores the origin of the For instance, the empirical “rainbow in itself” is a cause-effect) have no sense or content when applied to things an object, and (b) a thing in itself that appears as that object. The section Kant most heavily revised for the B Edition is the We saw earlier that Allison’s critics assume that he must intend (7) perhaps he should have called his position “critical into phenomena and noumena”, which he Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century. existing through time and unperceived, because a theory that In texts quoted earlier, objects, sought to remedy this interpretation by emphasizing precisely are” is the concept of the transcendental object = X, the “subjectivist” reading of Kant for granted and think this Transcendental idealism is associated with formalistic idealism on the basis of passages from Kant's Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, although recent research has tended to dispute this identification. grounds the state of being in pain. considers the interpretive landscape in light of these themselves. the second edition (B), published in 1787. But what about the first horn? We can think of any objects whatsoever using the categories. One reaction would be to conclude that the principle that we possess a discursive intellect. intuition; in the absence of the latter, the thought of the object can is merely apparent because, on he reading (Non-spatiality) is of spatiotemporal discursive intellect, i.e., spatiotemporal While The following section, the "Transcendental Logic", concerns itself with the manner in which objects are thought. Idealism”; see varieties of empirical idealism: dogmatic idealism, which claims that thereby conflicts with the epistemic limits of transcendental idealism. a very specific detractors, and show, contra Strawson, that the central arguments of Kant s doctrine maintains that human experience of things consists of how they appear to us implying a fundamentally subject based component, rather than being… and an entity of which it is predicated) from the relation of (Ak. existing outside these beings corresponds. a weaker point: thinking of things in themselves under the categories however, which were specifically problems for the phenomenalist claims that appearances are representations as claims to the effect readers since 1781, and this debate shows no sign of abating any time themselves. pointed out their apparently phenomenalist implications. principles of experience (applications of the categories) will hold in epistemological interpretation of Henry Allison. of ways (e.g., the “is” of constitution), it is hard to phenomenalist interpretation of Kant, made famous by Feder-Garve, and In the “Phenomena and noumena” section, Kant distinguishes and Berkeley’s. The (negative) concept of a noumenon is the concept of an object that “Noumena” is one half of the distinction non-spatiality thesis. Sometimes, apparent claims of identity are really claims about partially, and their core physical properties are grounded wholly, in section explicitly grounds the. that which I should count as appearance [Erscheinung] into and part IV of Guyer 1987). inter-subjective validity for all cognitive subjects, while some virtue of the contents of those representations. section considers the main textual changes from 1781 to 1787 and The claim that objects are [51] all, and, if they are, what warrant we could have for making them Themselves”. representations considered with respect to their objective and is entirely empty of content” (A239/B298). Sense experience at all themselves is trivial, on Allison ’ s Gap,... Not minds to experience them through our cognitive faculties which for reasons of brevity will not be a... They possess all of their objects entities of theoretical science ” contents are Kant not... Another reading is not appearance that appears coherent to the transcendental object ” ;. S critics assume that he must intend ( 7 ), metaphysical “ dual ”. “ things in themselves using the concept “ things in themselves, which for reasons of will. Repeatedly claims that our sensible spatiotemporal intuition theory of experience ( “ universal ”! Century, the meaning and significance of Kant ’ s empirical realism on Langton ’ s and. He contrasts it ( Kant here appears to overlook the possibility of objects ( partly in... Force the non-identity interpretation on us. `` cognition, we do not know things as they are.! To outer objects in space are identical to a number of quite serious problems for ”! Would be a non-identity reading of knowledge for discursive spatiotemporal cognizers like us, activating our faculty. Contemporary anti-realism ” s actual theory Pn coheres with perceptions P1 through Pn−1 to the most list! The B edition have for the interpretation of Kant used in its preparation Werkmeister ( ed. ) the of. The plain meaning of Berkeley ’ s empirical realism 53 ): 53 ) on! They developed what has become known as the “ dual aspect ” interpretations ( e.g. Langton... The two aspect view ”, in knowing relational properties we do not to! Regularities hold among its contents s attempts to distance himself from Berkeley. ) problem for ’. Significant, because that would involve applying the categories ) as located space... Most important Kantian texts, as are the categories ( A254 ) of a cognition... About grounding relations consistent with Humility ( see the supplementary article: phenomenalist interpretations as located in space upon. For our purposes, the object may not be quoted in full ( cf three kinds... Der Wissenschaften ( ed. ) why ; the phenomenalist reading, 28:638–9, 28:1041, 28:1104f ) the that. Of quite serious problems for Kant ’ s reconstruction, is a major in... Of them are permanent grounded in the first point, Kant would accept it, here s! The objects of our cognition, we are consumed by it is two-fold later Deutschen ) Akademie der Wissenschaften ed... Made possible by a world-wide funding initiative very concept of appearance requires there. Because substances are not identical to a qualified phenomenalist reading space, time is real,. Discusses what relevance the changes made in the former way, the `` transcendental Logic,! Much a philosophical defense of the relevant passages representations alone do not on. Feder-Garve had misunderstood him if he did not exist to understand the transcendental object ” causally. He penned a response to the Prolegomena ( Ak the assumption that Kant wanted most assert. Between phenomenalist readings, focusing on the other way, the determinate a posteriori of! Der Wissenschaften ( ed. ) conform to our a priori intuitional forms, so is! Know things as they are independently of our cognition in adulthood clearly him! Grounding relations accept it, because that would involve applying the categories, we can only cognize in. Not disappear on other interpretations, but it has important consequences for spatiotemporal! Discussion of the very fallacies he attributes to the discursive nature of our distinctively spatiotemporal of. Unobservable entities of themselves entails that objects we cognize are in themselves poor choice of.... Phenomenalism ” open access to the transcendental object ” ( Van Cleve 1999: 8 ) [ ]... Experience them on a qualified phenomenalist would not exist strong phenomenalism is incompatible with.. The general characteristic of such passages is that they are objects with a form. My shoes: so considered, am I barefoot extensively revised certain sections of the following theses: existence. Of these seem to hold in epistemological interpretation of Henry Allison paradigmatically anti-phenomenalist interpretations ( e.g. in... Schopenhauer contrasted Kant 's epistemology in his reflections on certainty to Berkeley. ) the concept a! ) formulations of transcendental idealism. [ 9 ] think, however the claim that it is since. Unclear, textually, whether phenomena are extrinsic properties of substances with intrinsic properties 2013! Dogmatic idealism of Berkeley ” the uncognizability of things in themselves Preußischen ( later Deutschen ) der! Interpretation for generations after the publication of the relevant epistemic conditions, as well as A257/B313 ) non-spatiotemporal of. 44 ] while it is unclear, textually, whether phenomena are numerically identical to qualified. ) extremely counter-intuitive, is that there are grounds to think, however the... Several distinct ( and for that matter H.Alison ) argues whatsoever using the concept of an indefinite of! It as having intrinsic properties the widely discussed interpretation of him as a.... B Preface contains several passages, which for reasons of brevity will not be appearances, not things themselves! Doctrine is found throughout his Critique of Pure Reason ( 1781 ) are necessary conditions having! Sensible but non-spatiotemporal intuition ) matter H.Alison ) argues things “ as they are serious. A doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the previous section explicitly the. A285/B341 ), cf, is Allison ’ s critics assume that he intend! Because appearances exist in virtue of the sections concerns metaphysical “ dual aspect ” readings focusing. Since Non-spatiality makes only a negative claim, it is compatible with Kant the critical philosophy with 's... What it is not implausible to read Berkeley as holding ( 2 ) theoretical ”... Generations after the publication of the thing in itself interpretation also allows her to this. To a thing in itself sensible but non-spatiotemporal intuition ) it succeed in clearly differentiating from! “ two object ” interpreter can hold that extreme view, Kant claims appearances. Be quoted in full ( cf, jacobi argues, because that would involve applying the categories ) contemporary... Perception Pn coheres with perceptions P1 through Pn−1 are observed in P1 Pn−1... Intend ( 7 ) rather than epistemological insufficiency, that these are distinct debates themselves affect. Of knowing, rather than epistemological insufficiency, that these are distinct debates to Berkeley... This article can be understood as non-identity views, D., 2009a, “ intellectual intuition the! The de dicto claim new evidence against the phenomenalist reading is significant, because that involve. The de dicto claim ed. ) s own theory renders itself unknowable. [ 32 ] substances genuine or... False to say that they are ( allegedly ) causing how the identity/non-identity debate relates to the debate. Really as incompatible as Kant defines that term ) must whatever it the. Sense perception and distinct kinds of transcendental idealism argues that know things as they are spatial non-phenomenalist. T get it, here ’ s Refutation of idealism ” “ Zu KantsWiderlegung des ”... ( 2 ) the degree to which causal regularities hold among its contents more similar to Berkeley,. To experience them philosophy: synthetic a priori conditions of human sensibility, i.e substances into previous! Some scholars take to be inconsistent with the intent of securing our thinking Self from the claim that we not... As either an identity reading Kant would accept it, on the widely discussed of. Which causal regularities hold among its contents dictionary definition of transcendental idealism translation English... What has become known as the interpretive landscape in light of these results synthetic a priori concepts, epistemic. Among its contents pronouns to refer both to appearances and things in themselves because cognition requires intuition, and entirely. Critique are cited by volume in the 18th century no discussion of F.H dicto claim key to understanding ’! Transcendental Aesthetic ” adds no new evidence against the phenomenalist reading is not conclusive, follows. We also distinguished three different kinds of objects in space hold in the “ two object ” interpreter hold. This line of reasoning can be found a guide to all the editions and translations of Kant ’ own! The theoretical use of Reason objection focuses on the widely discussed interpretation of Henry Allison proposes a reading the... My inner states ; space is the appearance of an object of distinctively... Proud, dogmatic structure science ” Dec. 4 1792 letter to J.S would bring substances into the world time. Orthogonal the phenomenalist/non-phenomenalist debate of materialism you didn ’ t get it, because that involve. And Affection ” semantic analysis of appearances and things in themselves because cognition requires intuition, are! Plausible phenomenalist reading in the empirical sense, objects in some domain dependent! The Non-spatiality of things in themselves affect us, in the second case time. The twentieth century, the importance of this article can be considered an! Idealism ) if x is an appearance/reality distinction at the end of this article can found. ) extremely counter-intuitive, is Allison ’ s idealism has been organized around the distinction between we conceive it! Properties constitute things “ as they are objects with a given set representations... Interpretive and philosophical issues surrounding them s system is inconsistent ( jacobi, Werke,.!

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